Can modern cosmology confirm the existence of God?

Sina science and technology news Beijing time on November 16, we know that all things in the universe are produced by a pre-existing state, which is different from the current state. Billions of years ago, there was neither human nor earth, because our solar system and the necessary components of life should be formed first. At the same time, the atoms and molecules necessary for the earth also need the origin of the universe: from the birth and death of stars, stellar debris and constituent particles, the breeding and formation of stars need the primitive atoms left over by the big bang. At each stage, when we trace back to the more and more distant history of the universe, we will find that all things in the universe have their reasons for existence.

Can we apply this logical structure to the universe? Since the late 1970s, philosophers and religious scholars, as well as some scientists involved in these fields, have asserted that they can be applied to the universe. This theory is called “Kalam cosmology” – that is, everything must exist for a reason; The beginning time of the existence of the universe; So the universe has its reason for existence.

A6021 philosophers put forward Kalam’s cosmology in the middle ages, which is based on the following three assumptions: everything exists for a reason; The beginning time of the existence of the universe; So the universe has its reason for existence.

Everything that began to exist has its reason, and the birth of the universe has its reason. What is the reason for the existence of the universe? The answer is “God”, which is the key to proving the existence of God in the modern universe, but to what extent can this premise stand the scientific test? Have scientists proved it? Are there any other options? In fact, the answer lies not in logic or theological philosophy, but in our scientific understanding of the universe.

Is there a reason why everything begins to exist, or a state that never exists? Intuitively, some things and concepts are not groundless. After all, the idea of making something out of nothing sounds absurd. If you can, it will completely destroy the concept of causality in people’s consciousness. The idea of “making something out of nothing” violates human cognitive common sense.

However, our daily life experience does not fully involve all things in the universe. Many physical and measurable phenomena seem to violate these causal concepts. The most famous example occurs in the quantum universe theory. For a simple example, we can observe a single radioactive atom. If you have a large number of radioactive atoms, We can predict how long half of the atoms will decay: This is the definition of half-life. However, for any atom, if you ask, “when will this atom decay?” or “what factors cause this atom to decay?” people can’t explain it with the concept of causality.

There are many ways to split an atom, and different methods can be used to obtain the same effect. If you want to split a particle in the nucleus, people can choose to split the nucleus or release energy, but radioactive decay forces us to face up to the thorny fact that atoms can achieve the same radioactive decay effect without human interference.

In other words, there is no specific reason for atomic radioactive decay. The universe seems to have some random and accidental properties, which makes some phenomena fundamentally uncertain and unknowable. In fact, many other quantum phenomena also show this randomness, including entanglement and rotation, the static mass of unstable particles In addition, there are many explanations in quantum mechanics, the most important of which is the “Copenhagen interpretation”, whose causality is the core feature of nature, not a defect.

You may argue that Copenhagen interpretative theory is not the only way to explain the universe, and quantum mechanics has other fully deterministic explanations. Although quantum mechanics has a certain factual basis, it is not a completely convincing argument. The feasible explanations of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable from the perspective of observation, which means that they are equally effective.

At the same time, there are many mysterious phenomena in the universe that cannot be explained by human thinking, such as virtual particles, quantum field fluctuations (unmeasurable), etc.

宇宙膨胀的可视化历史包括被称为大爆炸的热、稠密状态以及随后宇宙结构的增长和形成。科学家通过对轻元素和宇宙微波背景的观测,大爆炸是我们所看到一切的有效解释。随着宇宙不断膨胀,它也会冷却,使离子、中性原子,最终形成分子、气体云、恒星,最后形成星系。 the visual history of cosmic expansion includes the heat and density called the big bang and the subsequent growth and formation of cosmic structure. Through the observation of light elements and cosmic microwave background, scientists believe that the Big Bang is an effective explanation for everything we see. As the universe expands, it also cools, causing ions and neutral atoms to eventually form molecules, gas clouds, stars, and finally galaxies.

When did the universe begin to exist?

Although we will think that there is a fundamentally determined and non random causal reality based on the strange and counterintuitive quantum world we observe, it is difficult to conclude that the universe itself must begin to exist at a certain time.

How to explain the big bang?

Many experts say that the universe originated from a big bang about 13.8 billion years ago. Is this theory right?

We can trace the history of the universe back to an early, hot, dense, uniform and rapidly expanding state, which is absolutely true. Yes, we call this state a thermal big bang, but this view is not completely correct. It has been controversial for more than 40 years. The Big Bang is the law of space, time, energy and physics, And the beginning of everything we know and experience, but this is not the beginning of the universe. The beginning of the universe is a completely different state, which is called “cosmic expansion”. There is a lot of evidence to prove this: the density defect spectrum at the beginning of the thermal Big Bang; There are regions with high and low density on the super horizon cosmic scale; At the beginning of the universe, it was completely adiabatic, without equal curvature and fluctuation; And there is an upper limit on the temperature in the early universe, which is far lower than the failure range of the laws of physics.

Cosmic expansion corresponds to a cosmic stage in which the universe has no matter and radiation, but has a huge positive energy with inherent space structure. At the same time, this state does not become thinner with the expansion of the universe, but maintains a constant energy density under the condition of continuous expansion. This means that the universe has not changed in the process of expansion, cooling and slowing down expansion, and before that, the universe has been expanding exponentially.

This represents a great change, which can change our view of the origin of all things. A universe full of matter or radiation can be traced back to a singularity, while expanding space-time will not. From a mathematical point of view, the index refers to the continuous increase or decrease in the doubling level over a period of time. When such a time level is experienced again, it will double, increase or decrease again. This cycle has no limit.

In the context of modern general relativity and theoretical physics, it means that our understanding of the universe is incomplete. Unfortunately, in scientific terms, we can only measure the observable part of the universe. Although the universe expansion theory can explain some phenomena, in essence, it erases any information before the universe expansion, It also eliminates any information generated at the last moment before the expansion of the universe, which occurred before the thermal big bang. Therefore, whether from the perspective of observation or scientific theory, it is completely groundless to assert “when the universe began to exist”.

About 20 years ago, scientists published a theorem – bode Gus villenkin theorem, which proved that the ancient universe could not expand indefinitely. However, there is no factor to limit that the expanding universe also experienced a stage of continuous expansion. There are also many loopholes in this theorem. If people reverse time, the theorem will fail. If a specific set of quantum gravitational phenomena are used to replace the law of universal gravitation, the theorem is wrong. If people conceive the universe as an ever expanding state, the theorem will fail.

Similarly, as before, it is possible for the universe to be born from nothingness, but this view has neither been proved nor denied the possibility of other views. Some theists believe that there is a reason for the birth of the universe, and does this reason have anything to do with God?

Philosophers put forward Kalam cosmology in the middle ages, which is based on the following three assumptions: everything exists for a reason; The beginning time of the existence of the universe; So the universe has its reason for existence. So far, we have determined the first two hypotheses of Kalam’s cosmology. However, if we assume that they are correct, can we prove that God is the reason for the existence of the universe? This view holds only when people define God as “generating the universe from a state that does not exist”. Here are some examples to illustrate why this is absurd.

When we simulate a two-dimensional universe on a computer, did we create the universe? So are we the God of the universe?

If the state of expansion of the universe originates from an existing state, is the state that causes expansion the God of our universe? If a random quantum fluctuation leads to the end of the expansion of the universe and the beginning of the thermal big bang, as we know the universe, is this random process equivalent to God?

Although some people may hold a positive view, it doesn’t sound like the omnipotent, omniscient and omnipotent existence of God we usually talk about. If the first two assumptions of Kalam cosmology are true, we can only say that the universe has its reason for existence, not that this is the existence of God. (Ye Qingcheng)